There is lots of good research about emerging online harms. By keeping up-to-date and informed we are better equipped to address online harms and make the internet a safer place for tamariki and rangatahi.

Online safety

There is an extensive range of data and research available about personal online safety practices undertaken by New Zealand parents and caregivers. Te Tari Taiwhenua Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) has published a report drawing on this existing literature to gain a greater understanding about parents and caregivers' knowledge of their children’s online experience. 

Netsafe and Global Kids Online have completed a number of reports including one on New Zealand children's exposure to harmful online content such as violence and self-harm. They have also explored the impact online content has on children and the strategies employed by caregivers to mediate their children’s experiences of online harm. 

DIA, alongside Ministry of Education, Network for Learning and Te Mana Whakaatu Classification Office, has undertaken a pilot trial to test the effectiveness of the design of block-pages. The trial provided young people in secondary schools with information, tools and resources about accessing pornography online, having healthy relationships and where to get help and support for online harms.

Cybersmarties have undertaken a whitepaper which delves into the complexities of the digital landscape,  presenting a comprehensive analysis of the dangers that young users face online. The whitepaper aims is to equip parents, educators, and policymakers with the knowledge and strategies needed to safeguard children, ensuring they can navigate the digital world safely and responsibly.


The UK Children's Commissioner recently released a series of reports exploring the impact of pornography on children. The reports include findings from a survey of over a thousand 16-21-year-olds and highlights the detrimental effect that pornography has on children and young people:

Te Mana Whakaatu Classification Office conducted 50 interviews with young people aged 14-17 years old to understand their exposure to pornography and the impact it has.


Te Mana Whakaatu Classification Office surveyed 2,000 16-year-olds in New Zealand about the growing spread of misinformation and the harm it is causing to our communities.

Child sexual exploitation 

We Protect Global Alliance and Praesidio Safeguarding conducted qualitative research among 13-17-year olds on the issue of ‘self-generated’ sexual material in three different country contexts – Ghana, Thailand and Ireland. The paper explores their views on how and why ‘self-generated’ sexual materials are shared, how individuals respond to the issue and how our responses can be improved.

The Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) investigated how artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly used to create child sexual abuse material (CSAM) online. The report found that most AI CSAM found is now very realistic and almost indistinguishable from CSAM depicting real victims.

Terrorism and violent extremism 

The website Unmasking Extremism is a collation of resources about extremism and related topics within Aotearoa New Zealand.

Te Mana Whakaatu Classification Office conducted research exploring the links between online misogyny and violent extremism.